Misc scribbles

How to make your own npm package with typescript


There is a lot of mystery around making your own npm package. Every package likely does it a bit differently, and it can be tricky to get a setup you like. Should you use a "starter kit" or a boilerplate example? Or just roll your own? Should you use a bundler? How do you use typescript? Well, why don't we try starting from scratch and seeing where we can get?

TLDR: here is a github repo with a template package https://github.com/cmdcolin/npm-package-tutorial/


An npm package can be very bare bones. In some sense, npmjs.com is just an arbitrary file host, and you can upload pretty much anything you want to it.

The magic is in the package.json file, which tells npm:

Let's try an experiment...

#Part 1: the most basic package with plain JS code in commonjs format

Open up a terminal, and run

mkdir mypackage
cd mypackage
git init # make mypackage version controlled
npm init # or yarn init

This init command outputs something like this, and we accept the defaults

This utility will walk you through creating a package.json file.
It only covers the most common items, and tries to guess sensible defaults.
See `npm help init` for definitive documentation on these fields
and exactly what they do.
Use `npm install <pkg>` afterwards to install a package and
save it as a dependency in the package.json file.
Press ^C at any time to quit.
package name: (mypackage)
version: (1.0.0)
entry point: (index.js)
test command:
git repository:
license: (ISC)
About to write to /home/cdiesh/mypackage/package.json:
  "name": "mypackage",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "description": "",
  "main": "index.js",
  "scripts": {
    "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" && exit 1"
  "author": "Colin",
  "license": "ISC"

Then, you can create a file named index.js (in your package.json it says "main": "index.js" to refer to this file, the entrypoint)

In your index.js file, generally, you would do things like export a function or functions. I will use commonjs exports here for maximum compatibility:

module.exports = {
  hello: () => {
    console.log('hello world')

#Publishing a package

This npm package, mypackage can now be published to npm with a simple command.

npm publish
# or
yarn publish

This will prompt you for your npmjs.com username, password, email, and if needed, 2FA token (highly recommended)

#Using your package after it is published

Once it is published, you can use it in your create-react-app app or other npm package.

npm install mypackage
# or
yarn add mypackage

Then you can use

import { hello } from 'mypackage'

in any of your other codebases

#Summary of the simplest NPM package

This all seems pretty boring thus far but it tells us a couple things

  1. packages can be very very bare bones
  2. no transpiler or bundler is needed for publishing an npm package
  3. our package can consist of a single file and it is uploaded to npm, and the "main" field in package.json provides an entry point
  4. the filename index.js is not special, probably it is a hangover from the name index.html. you can use whatever name you want

#Part 2: Adding typescript

Let's try adding typescript

To do this, we will use the typescript compiler to compile a directory of files in our "src" directory and output the compiled files to a directory named "dist"

To start, let's add typescript

npm install --save-dev typescript
# or
yarn add -D typescript

Our package.json now will have typescript in it's devDependencies (this means that when someone installs your package, it they don't get typescript as a dependency, it is just a dependency for while you are developing the library locally).

Then we need to create a tsconfig.json for typescript to use

yarn tsc --init
# or
npx tsc --init

This will generate a tsconfig.json file (needed by typescript) with a bunch of options, but I have stripped it down in my projects to look like this

  "include": ["src"],
  "compilerOptions": {
    "target": "es2018",
    "moduleResolution": "node", // don't have to import actual filenames, can import extensionless files
    "declaration": true, // generate .d.ts files
    "sourceMap": true, // generate source map
    "outDir": "dist", // output compiled js, d.ts, and source map to dist folder
    "strict": true,
    "esModuleInterop": true

Now, let's wrote a little typescript. We can now use "ESM" style code, we will compile it to commonjs format.


export function getMessage() {
  return 'hello'


import { getMessage } from './util'
export function sayMessage() {

And then we will add a "build" script to package.json to compile the library, and refer to the "dist" directory for the "files" and "main" fields in package.json

  "name": "mypackage",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "description": "",
  "main": "src/index.js",
  "files": ["dist", "src"], // we publish both dist and src to get proper sourceMaps
  "scripts": {
    "build": "tsc --module commonjs"
  "author": "Colin",
  "license": "ISC",
  "devDependencies": {
    "typescript": "^4.5.4"

We can now run

npm run build
# or
yarn build

And this will run the "build" script we created, which in turn, just runs tsc with no arguments.

You can also add a "prebuild" script that clears out the old contents. In fact, npm scripts generalizes the naming system -- you can make scripts with whatever name you want, e.g.

  "scripts": {
    "preparty": "echo preparty",
    "party": "echo party",
    "postparty": "echo postparty"

Then running

$ yarn party

To make this useful, we will use rimraf (a node package) to make a cross-platform removal of the dist directory

npm install --save-dev rimraf
# or
yarn add -D rimraf

and then update your package.json

  "scripts": {
    "clean": "rimraf dist",
    "prebuild": "npm run clean",
    "build": "tsc --module commonjs"
  "devDependencies": {
    "rimraf": "^3.0.2",
    "typescript": "^4.5.4"

We could make it say "rm -rf dist" instead of "rimraf dist" (e.g. run arbitrary shell commands), but rimraf allows it to be cross-platform

#Making sure you create a fresh build before you publish

Without extra instructions, your yarn publish command would not create a fresh build and you could publish an older version that was lingering in the dist folder.

We can use a preversion script that will automatically get invoked when you run yarn publish to make sure you get a fresh build in the dist folder before you publish

  "scripts": {
    "preversion": "npm run build",

#Making sure you push your tag to github after publish

When you run yarn publish, npm will automatically create a commit with the version name and a git tag, it will not automatically push tag to your repository.

Add a postversion script that pushes the tag to your repo after your publish

  "scripts": {
    "postversion": "git push --follow-tags",

#Incremental builds

We can use this to do incremental/watch builds

npm run build --watch
# or
yarn build --watch

#Adding testing with ts-jest

You can use ts-jest to test your code. This involves installing jest, typescript, ts-jest, @types/jest, and then initializing a jest.config.json

npm i -D jest typescript
# or
yarn add --dev jest typescript
npm i -D ts-jest @types/jest
# or
yarn add --dev ts-jest @types/jest
npx ts-jest config:init
# or
yarn ts-jest config:init

We can then create a test


import { getMessage } from '../src/util'
test('expected message returned', () => {

Then we can then create a script in the package.json that says "test": "jest", and then we can say

npm run test
# or
yarn test

You can also create an alternative system where you use babel-eslint and various babel strategies to test your code, but if you are using typescript, ts-jest and typescript works great.

#Add a .gitignore

Create a .gitignore with just a line that references this dist folder and node_modules folder


#The future of ESM modules

There is a shift happening where modules are changing to be pure ESM rather than keeping commonjs equivalents


There are many challenges here, but one shortcut that I have used is to actually go "halfway to ESM" and just publish a "dual" package: one "main" field in the package.json referring to a commonjs file, and one "module" field with an ESM style build for bundlers. I do it like this:

  "files": ["dist", "esm", "src"],
  "scripts": {
    "clean": "rimraf dist esm",
    "prebuild": "npm run clean",
    "build:cjs": "tsc --module commonjs --ourDir dist",
    "build:esm": "tsc --target es2018 --outDir esm",
    "build": "npm run build:esm && npm run build:cjs"
  "main": "dist/index.js",
  "module": "esm/index.js"

The "module" field is understood by bundlers like webpack and you can do slightly less polyfilling/babeling on it (hence the different --target attributes)

This is not "pure ESM" with the "type":"module" in package.json, but it does help to have less "babelification" (which in our case is done by tsc) of your source code.


This tutorial shows you how you can create a basic package that you can publish to npm. This little boilerplate includes these features:

You also have full control, and understand the decisions we took to get to this point. This package does not use any bundling (rollup or webpack or otherwise). It just uses tsc is used to compile the files to the dist folder, and the dist folder is published to npm!

If you need your package to be usable by consumers that don't themselves use bundlers, consider looking into <script type="module"> for importing ESM modules in the browser, or you can bundle your library using rollup or webpack and output e.g. a UMD bundle

#Final product

See https://github.com/cmdcolin/npm-package-tutorial/

This is a setup that works for me, but there are many ways to publish a package so take it with a grain of salt!

Also see my follow up rant: you may not need a bundler https://cmdcolin.github.io/posts/2022-05-27-youmaynotneedabundler

#Footnote 1 - what about monorepos?

There are many high powered "monorepo" setups like lerna, nx, turborepo, etc.

I think for many purposes, these can be a bit overkill. I would start with yarn workspaces. Basically, the way this works is you can have e.g. in your root package.json in your repo something likely

  "name": "root",
  "private": true,
  "workspaces": ["lib", "app"]

And then in your lib directory you can have your library as we created above and app for example can be an instance of a vite app that uses your library. You can reference your lib by name in the app folders package.json, and it will automatically get the latest version of it that you have built from the lib directory e.g. your app will look at the libs "dist" folder: it's compiled outputs. That means you can run yarn tsc --watch in the lib folder to continuously build it, and then e.g. when you are running e.g. yarn dev in the app directory, it will see updates to the lib dist directory and auto-update via hot module refresh

High powered solutions like nx, turborepo, etc may have solutions for 'automatically building all the stuff' without you explicitly having to run the build in the lib directory, but for simple monorepo setups, this works ok